Strategies for climate change adaptation in urban areas require the increased use of vegetation to reduce heat loads and for rainwater retention after heavy rainfall events. In the Bavarian conurbations, however, green areas are under increasing pressure due to population growth through building densification or high-density construction methods. In addition, due to the underground technical infrastructure such as pipes, underground railways, underground car parks etc., it is often hardly possible in many urban situations to plant trees or provide adequate root areas so that they can develop well in the long term. A possible solution here is the use of trees in planters. This is currently being used more and more in public spaces and is also being discussed in architecture as an option for intensive greening of buildings. However, trees in plant pots have an extremely limited root space, which also limits the development of the tree crown. In addition, trees and especially their roots are exposed to extreme, often critical growth conditions such as large temperature fluctuations, severe frost or water shortages, which affects growth and ecosystem performance. The urban climatic effect of shade and evaporation must therefore be assessed differently from that of trees growing in the ground.
Approach and Methodology
With the help of own test series, theoretical preliminary considerations, literature research and expert interviews, vegetation-technical findings are obtained which allow concrete statements for planning and practice. The findings can be used to define minimum requirements that a planting container must meet to ensure the long-term survival and good development of the tree.
The results of the test series serve as a basis to gain knowledge about the differences between trees in planters and trees in the field. This will allow growth models for trees in planters to be developed and adaptation strategies to be considered in a more differentiated way. The growth models developed can also be used to assess the ecosystem services of trees in planters.
The results will be supplemented by further research and expert interviews in order to be able to evaluate the influence of the local climate on the usability of trees in planters. A catalogue of methods will then be developed from these results, which will allow planners, users and established institutes to further develop the findings in order to compile them in a "Bavarian Application Atlas for Trees in Planters".
Abgerundet wird das Forschungsprojekt mit der Entwicklung von architektonischen Strategien zur ästhetischen und standortgerechten Verwendung von Bäumen in Pflanzgefäßen. Die Strategien werden in Beispiel- und Modellentwürfen überprüft und fließen anschließend in einen Planungsleitfaden ein. Mit dessen Hilfe können Planer, Städte und Gemeinden Planungs-, Umsetzungs- und Pflegeprozesse erarbeiten und umsetzen.
The research project is rounded off with the development of architectural strategies for the aesthetic and site-appropriate use of trees in planters. The strategies will be tested in example and model designs and will then be incorporated into a planning guideline. With its help, planners, cities and municipalities can develop and implement planning, implementation and maintenance processes.